Day 1 :
- Neurophysiology, Autism and ADHD, Social Psychology, Mental Illness and Awareness, Psychiatric Disorders, Psychiatry and Psychology, Bipolar and Schizophrenia, Neuropsychiatry, Clinical Neurophysiology, Neuronal Functions and Disorders, Neurology & Neurogenesis
Sanjay Gandhi Post Graduate Institute of Medical Sciences, India
Jayantee Kalita is presently working as professor, Department of neurology, Sanjay Gandhi post graduate Institute of Medical Sciences, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India. Prof. Kalita is an excellent teacher and clinician. She has outstanding academic carrier and received “the best neuroscientist in India” award by Carrier 360 based on her number of publications, Hi index and citations, She is the author of four books and published about 432 papers in the peer reviewed journals
Phonophobia in migraineurs may be due to lower hearing threshold (HT) and higher Brainstem neuronal excitability. We report correlation of phonophobia in migraineurs with HT, Brain stem auditory evoked potential (BAEP) findings and auditory triggers. Sixty-one migraineurs and 101 controls were included for HT, of whom 59 migraineurs and 31 controls had BAEP studies. Clinical details, migraine triggers and headache frequency were noted. Hearing threshold was measured, and amplitudes of waves I to V of BAEP studies were measured. Migraineurs had lower HT compared with controls (41.61 ± 5.25 vs. 45.39 ± 6.26 dB; p < 0.001) especially in chronic migraine (40.24 ± 4.81; P < 0.001). Hearing threshold correlated with headache frequency (P < 0.05) and auditory, visual and tactile (P < 0.05) triggers. Hearing threshold was lower during headache (P < 0.001). Wave II, III and IV amplitudes of BAEP were higher in migraineurs than the controls. Wave II (P < 0.05) and III (P < 0.05) amplitudes correlated with HT.
Migraineurs have lower HT, especially in those having chronic migraine, Ictal HT recording and multiple sensory triggers. Higher amplitudes of BAEP waves in migraineurs and its relationship with frequency of headache and HT suggest sensitization of Brainstem auditory neurons.
Keywords: Migraine; Hearing threshold; Episodic migraine; Chronic migraine; Brainstem; Auditory evoked potential.
Associate Professor, Department of Physical Education, Jadavpur University, India
Dr. Asish Paul was born on 10 November, 1968, in Shyamnagar, West Bengal, India. He graduated in Physics Honours from Ramakrishna Mission, Rahara, West Bengal, became Bachelors in Physical Education from Jadavpur University and then completed his M. P. Ed, becoming first class first and Gold medalist, and Ph. D. from Kalyani University, West Bengal. He has also completed the course of Post-Graduate Diploma in Sports Management from Indian Institute of Social Welfare and Business Management (IISWBM), Kolkata. He ranked first in the 1st School Service Commission (SSC) Examination in southern region of West Bengal in 2000. He remained the District Officer of Physical Education and youth Welfare of Bankura District in West Bengal for tenure of seven years (1999-2007). Later, he joined as Assistant Professor in Physical Education in SIPEW, Hastings house, situated in Alipur, West Bengal. After a long course from 2007 till 2012, he joined as the Assistant Professor in Jadavpur University, Kolkata, West Bengal. He is presently serving as an Associate Professor of Jadavpur University. He was a College Athletics Champion and represented University Football team of Jadavpur University. He has also played 1st Division Kolkata Football League and represented District Champion Football team. He is an AFC C-licensed Football coach as well as a National Athletic Official. His area of Specialization in Research is different areas of Social Science related with Sports Management. He has special interest in Biomechanics, Sports training and Community Service. He is an excellent Football defender, sprinter, long-jumper and an aspiring coach and researcher.
Statement: “Wellness is an active process through which people become aware of, and make choices toward, a more successful existence.” --National Wellness Institute. Culture is an integrated system of learned behaviour patterns which are characteristic of the members of a society and which is not a result of biological inheritance. The social culture with regular physical activity contributes to the potential developmental status with optimum health and better quality of livelihood. Exercises comprised of movement and different games have some positive benefits to the wellbeing of human being.
Purpose: The purpose of the study was to find out the influence of a 12 week (from December to February) sports culture programme on the wellbeing of middle-aged tribal women.
Methodology: The randomized control trial methods were used. 45 tribal women aged between 20-40 years from one village of Purulia district, were considered as experimental group and another 25 tribal women of same age range from another village of Purulia were considered as the control group. The distance of these two villages were 10 km. having same climate, socioeconomic status and infrastructural facilities. The subjects underwent training for six day in a week for 1 hour daily. The sports culture programme included walking, running, stretching, joint mobility exercises, calisthenics, playing volleyball, badminton, Yogasana, etc. There were lecture session about personal health and hygiene, diet and nutrition, importance of exercise etc. The wellbeing status was measured through the five dimensions of total wellness, such as physical wellbeing, mental wellbeing, social wellbeing, emotional wellbeing and spiritual wellbeing by the questionnaire. The pre and post-tests were conducted on the subjects to collect the data on the variables of the study.
Findings and Conclusions: The statistical calculation shows that significant development occurred only in case of spiritual wellbeing with moderate development in case of other factors of wellness, but no significant changes occurred in case of the control group, although slight development occurred. It was concluded that the sports culture comprising of regular physical exercises, playing different sports and some theoretical informative classes has positive beneficial effects upon the total wellness in case of the tribal women.
Key- words: Culture, Sports Culture, Fitness, Heart rate, Blood pressure, Blood glucose
Consultant Physician & Cardiologist Morning Star Hospital, India
Ramachandran Muthiah, Consultant Physician & Cardiologist, Zion hospital, Azhagiamandapam, Morning Star hospital, Marthandam, Kanyakumari District, India. Completed M.D. in General Medicine in 1996, D.M. in cardiology in 2003 under Tamil Nadu Dr.MGR Medical University, Chennai, India. Worked as medical officer in Rural health services for 5 years and in teaching category as Assistant Professor at Madras medical college, Coimbatore medical college, Thoothukudi medical college and Professor at Dr.SMCSI Mission hospital & Medical college, Karakonam, Trovandrum and Azeezia Medical college, Kollam. Published many papers in Cardiosource, American College of Cardiology Foundation, Case Reports in Clinical Medicine (SCIRP) and Journal of Saudi Heart Association. Special research on Rheumatic fever and Endomyocardial fibrosis in tropical belts, Myxomas, Infective endocarditis, apical hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, Ebstein’s anomaly, Rheumatic Taussig-Bing Heart, Costello syndrome and Tetralogy of Fallot.
Corona virus is a single-stranded neurotropic RNA virus and it enters into the brain through the olfactory bulb following nasopharyngeal exposure. The Angiotensin converting enzyme 2 receptor (ACE-2), to which SARS-CoV-2 binds for entry into cells, found in brain vascular endothelium and smooth muscle and SARS-CoV-2 replicates in neuronal cells. It causes oedema, neuronal necrosis, and broad gliocyte hyperplasia. The elevated expression of the cytokine, monokine induced by gamma interferon (known as MIG or CXCL9), and with infiltration of monocytes and macrophages plus T cells are consistent with viral CNS entry, triggering the release of cytokines and chemokines, which contribute to tissue damage. A vasculitis process similar to that for varicella zoster virus, in which viral replication in the cerebral arterial wall triggers local inflammation, endothelial infection by SARS-CoV-2 and stroke are consistent with a virus-associated microangiopathic process. Competitive blockage of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 by the SARS-CoV-2 virus down-regulates angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 expression leading to uncontrolled blood pressure and the enhanced possibility of cerebrovascular accidents. The SARS-CoV-2 virus epitopes bear a structural resemblance to several human proteins. Molecular mimicry between virus epitope and myelin basic protein results in autoimmune postinfectious demyelinating syndromes. Spike surface glycoprotein plays a crucial role in immunopathology. Dysregulation of the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 receptor contributes to the pathogenesis of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. Guillain-Barré syndrome is a frequently encountered neurological complication of COVID-19. Zhao and co-workers described the first patient of Guillain-Barré syndrome in a patient with COVID-19. After this, 18 more patients of Guillain-Barré syndrome in COVID-19, have been described. Miller Fisher syndrome is a variant of Guillain-Barré syndrome and is characterized by ophthalmoplegia, ataxia, and areflexia. Has also been described in patients with Covid-19. Treatment with intravenous immunoglobulins lead to complete or partial recovery in the majority. A serine protease enzyme inhibitor blocks viral entry into the host cell. This phenomenon can be exploited for developing a treatment of COVID-19, in the future
Tazeen Jamal Siddiqui is a Managing Director of Mansha Educational Society. She has Honorary Doctorate Degree of Education in Higher Education Management Honoris causa.
This paper intends to explain that Leadership is a strong word by its pronunciation and its essence of existence in every heart and mind encourages to transform themselves and others at each step of life.
Introduction: Every human is a born leader, but few make it to the strength of its word as among all the people only few realize their true strengths to lead themselves and others to the journey of excellence with the true guidance of vision and perseverance to their strength to rise each day to create a better version of themselves. Leadership is not about a good leader or a bad leader it’s about understanding the functioning of the system of heart and mind aligned to take a decision of excellence with love, care and kindness with firm perseverance to positive outcome
Timing:- When I say timing, It has nothing to do with the clock, it’s all about your timing of the right words that you choose during discussions with your friends and colleagues. It’s your right timing of nonverbal communication in the situations when you meet the person for the first time in formal and non-formal meetings, do not wait for the other person to greet first or shake hands, always initiate to greet and start a great conversation with a smile to bring the other person in the comfort zone of interaction. At events, meet and greet personally as it shows your love, kindness and sincerity.
2. Contingency Intelligences: A leader must have the situational intelligence to deal with any situation coming their way in surprise wrapped with complexities and as a leader, we must analyse the situation as a third person observing it closely at every end and by considering the situation in the viewpoint of the parties at both end and the situational outcome of your decision. Take a decision by keeping view the following factors in emergency that your decision has to help the organization from getting into loss , keeping in view that emotional casualties can be well handled to recover hearts to maintain the trust of togetherness and stay calm at contingency situation by analyzing as the person watching it as an observer by keeping yourself out of the situational contingency for sometime and that will bring out the decision of justice, kindness and excellence by analyzing it at the factors completely with sincerety and calmness.
Positional Intelligences: A leader must possess the intelligences of appointing people at the right time and identifying their expertise areas and positioning them to their expertise area to raise the organization with excellence and utilizing their expertise in the most effective way that must be aligned to the objectives of the organization and its vision .Positional intelligence is the most important factor for organizational growth and development. 4. Decision Making: Decision making is the most important element of organizational efficiency and once its handled with right attitude considering the variables attached and bringing out stable strategies to witness the positive and efficient outcome. 5. Empathy: Heart and Mind are two major elements that act as the backbone of our decisions, actions, reactions and judgement .When your heart encourages kindness and love towards everyone, then comes the major end of the threats that can hurt the team spirit of love and togetherness. 6 Locus of self-control:- When we interact in the organization, there are internal and external variables that affect the functioning of organization and people and to have control over these variables, we need to have the major control over the variables within our heart and mind once we settle and align our thoughts in the right direction, we control all the conditions, reactions and judgement internally and externally. To understand it better I believe to eradicate air, water and land pollution, first we need to eradicate the most important pollution that results in all kinds of pollution, which is Mind pollution, once we eradicate the pollution in our thoughts then we eradicate all the problems resulting in through different ways. Everything around you and within you comes into control with your thoughts, actions and beliefs of understanding each other’s point of view, accepting the fact of freedom of expression of thoughts and suggestions by team, control over the reactions to different situations with appropriate verbal and nonverbal reactions to situations.
7. Interpersonal skills:- The efficiency of communication is directly linked with your thought process that is being guided by your heart, when we align our thoughts to words ,our communication improves in an efficient way internally and externally .verbal and non-verbal communication ,both play an important role to connect and build relationships as it’s the way we interact with people that represents our heart and mind to the other person ,make your communication as pleasant as possible with logic, care, love, kindness and trust. Non-verbal communication includes your body language and especially your eyes that give a trust to another person's heart that you care and love the person with utmost sincerity and wants the best for him.
8. Positivity:- Positivity is not just confined about thinking good all the time, its basically about understanding situations at both ends of the people ,once we start understanding the reaction and judgement of other person in regard with his situations, experiences and his personal problems ,our attitude towards everything happening with and around that person changes amazingly, once we start analyzing the situation as a third person considering each aspect of situation we understand every problem in an appropriate way which results into immediate solutions of each problem occurring and brings an end to negative understanding and reactions .The organization flourish with positivity . 9. Passion: To excel in any department of life, first we need to love that particular thing, thought and vision intensely to give your best, when you start loving what you want to do in life then you start rising with excellence and this defines your passion. The main ingredients of the Passion are sincerity, honesty, love and dedication. Conclusions: The nine pillars of leadership called Nonagon Leadership Helps every heart and mind to lead in an effective way with great courage and happiness of creating leaders to be true leaders
Immanuel Kant Baltic Federal University, Russia
Arina Serbina is a 5th year graduate student, School of Life Sciences, Immanuel Kant Baltic Federal University, specialty bioengeneering and bioinformatics; Alexander Bogdanov is a researcher at School of Life Sciences, Immanuel Kant Baltic Federal University (Russia, Kaliningrad). Dr.Yuriy Pankratov - PhD, Associate professor at School of Life Sciences at the University of Warwick, UK.
It has been suggested that the neurons of prefrontal cortex, along with the hippocampus and amygdala, can undergoes morphological and molecular remodelling during the development of stress-related disorders, such as PTSD. Pathological remodeling of the GABAergic inhibitory signalling during stress disorders might bring significant contribution to impairment of synaptic plasticity  and cognition . In this work we have used an experimental model of PTSD in mice, based on a single prolonged stress protocol  and studied alterations in the synaptic transmission and long-term synaptic plasticity in the pyramidal neurons of prefrontal cortex.The stress state in the animals was evaluated with the aid of Open field and Elevated cross-maze behavioural tests. We have found an increase in the quantal amplitude of GABA-ergic spontenous inhibitory synaptic currents (mIPSCs) in the neurons of prefrontal cortex of stressed animals. There were also elevation in the frequency of mIPSC in neurons of the stress-group vs control group. These results demonstrate that that exposure to stress can cause an up-regulation of the GABAergic inhibitory system in the prefrontal cortex. In the experiments on long-term potatiation (LTP) of field postsynaptic potentials (fEPSP), we have observed that the amplitude of LTP induced by the theta-burst stimulation in the prefrontal cortex synapses of stressed mice was much lower than in the control group. The data obtained suggest that stress-induced up-regulation of inhibitory signalling can affect long-term synaptic plasticity in the prefrontal cortex and thereby contribute to congnitive impairment.
Institute of Neurosciences of Castilla and León, Germany
Dr. Felix-Martin Werner studied human medicine at the university of Bonn. He has been working as a medical teacher in the formation of geriatric nurses, occupational therapists and assistents of the medical doctor at the Euro Academy in Pößneck since 1999. He has been doing scientific work at the Institute of Neurosciences of Castilla and León (INCYL) in Salamanca (Spain) since 2002. With Prof. Rafael Coveñas, he assisted at over 30 national and 12 international congresses of neurology and published over 40 reviews about neural networks in neurological and psychiatric diseases. Since 2014, Dr. Werner has belonged to the editorial board of the Journal of Cytology & Histology.
Schizophrenia is a chronic mental and disabling disease, which has a heritability of 50 %. Some susceptibility genes have been discovered. In schizophrenic patients, second-generation antipsychotic drugs are administered, but a long term therapeutic effect is not secure. Some schizophrenic patients show treatment-resistant forms of psychosis. In some cases, the SGA clozapine shows a therapeutic effect after some months later. Schizophrenic patients tend to show a reduced adherence to the pharmacotherapy and to consume substances such as alcohol, nicotine and, in some cases, drugs such as cannabis and amphetamines. Some retrospective studies reported that the reduced adherence to the antipsychotic pharmacotherapy was combined with the consumption of substances. Substance such as alcolol and nicotine can worsen psychotic symptoms. Cannabis has two compounds, e.g. tetrahydrocannabinol, which is psychotomimetic, and cannabidiol, which is antipsychotic. Amphetamines can as well worsen psychotic symptoms. Psychoeducation, for example the mindful-based form helps to improve the patients’ compliance and to reduce the substance abuse. The long-acting injectable forms of antipsychotic drugs can make sure the regular administration of these drugs. Patients taking regularly their antipsychotic drug have a better social functioning and a better clinical outcome. In order to reduce the substance abuse, additional drugs such as vanecriline, a nAch agonist, and rimonabant, a CB1 receptor antagonist can be administered.
Maricla Pirozzi is a higher education management professional working across cities, states, and countries with higher education institutions, industry, and governmental organizations to drive educational partnerships and promote global education and competence. She is fluent in English, Spanish, Italian with several years of experience in the public and private section and also in higher education working with students, faculty, staff, and senior-level administration. Her role is internal to the institution and various constituents outside the institution, locally and overseas, helping to expand strategic goals. Maricla is an experienced professional assessing new program development, branch campus expansion, best practices in education, student needs, and the online market. Her experience also spans working with graduate students and adult learners in various markets internationally. She is a culturally aware and sensitive professional with solid project management and leadership skills and a solid ability to relate with and advise diverse populations and responsible facilitator on crisis management within an international context.
Students who have been diagnosed with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) are impacted by ADHD in their academic pursuits in higher education. The purpose of this study was to investigate, explore, understand, and offer a voice to the students directly affected by ADHD. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with eight students, currently enrolled at Northeastern University pursuing an undergraduate degree, who disclosed to the Disabilities Resource Center that they have been diagnosed with ADHD. The framework for the research was based on Ryan and Deci’s (2000) Theory of Self-determination. The data was analyzed using Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis. Findings included early diagnosis and identification as an essential factor in an individual's growth and academic success as well as the influence of their support systems on their self-awareness and self-confidence. This study specifically looked at the impact of early diagnosis as it relates to the establishment of one's identity. Participants did not define themselves by their disability but by identity they created throughout their college journey, being aware of their disability allowed them to become self- advocates and primary contributor to their success. Also, the importance of balancing both internal and external motivation for college students with ADHD was essential to their well-being and effectiveness in a college setting.
Simon Raymond is a Consultant (medicine and surgery) specialising in Medical and Scientific Research and an Alumnus of Melbourne University (Rank of Number 1 in Australia and Number 33 in the World). The above stated Researcher has acted as a Reviewer for the respected Medical Journal of Australia, has received invitations internationally to review from prestigious medical journals including Journal of American Medical Association Network. He has received award in recognition of his research by Royal Australasian College of Surgeons (PSC, 2006) and invited to conferences internationally as an official Delegate and Researcher, including that in USA and China. Dr Simon Raymond is a graduate of medical school who shifted from clinical practitioner medicine and surgery into a focus on high level scientific research. Dr Simon Raymond has acted as the Principle Researcher in the highest-powered form of medical trialâ€”Randomised Controlled Trial (RCT). The above stated Researcher is also a Member of the Golden Key International Society for Honoured and outstanding Academics and has been cited as a Notable Global Leader. Dr Simon Raymondâ€™s research has been indexed by well respected universities including Cornell University
Intellectual property (IP) theft represents one of the most serious crimes globally. IP theft from computer type devices is relatively well understood. IP theft progressing to that directly from the minds of individuals seems a natural extension. However, it is not yet well understood by the medical community, IP theft directly from the minds of individual appears to be occurring. It is established based on: 1. The presence of mind abuse programs1-5 2. An axis of interest directed at the mind of individuals copying neurological processes 1-2, 4 Mind abuse + copying neurology = abusive copying of neurology Last lecture we covered governments and the medical profession, This lecture focuses on corporations. Corporate activity includes in depth analysis of consumer preference analysis and decision making. It should be ensured this doesn’t expand into dangerous territories including IP theft. Conclusion: IP theft directly from the minds of individual appears to be occurring. It is established based on: 1. The presence of mind abuse programs1-3 2. An axis of interest directed at the mind of individuals copying neurological processes1-2, 4 Mind abuse + copying neurology = abusive copying of neurology Key word (terms): axis, copying neurology, IP, offences, thef
Augusta University, Augusta, GA
Biography: Benjamin Andrew Casola is a 28-year-old psychiatry resident in Augusta, Georgia. He published a poster with the GPPA in 2019 and was recently published in the JECT for a case report. He has published three works of poetry and short stories "Winterbrook", "Tesoro", and "Ex Tenebris". He also won the Bruce Dearing Award in poetry for his work in the "The Healing Muse". He will continue publishing while working to become a holistic child psychiatrist.
Thorough exploration and accurate diagnosis of patients with histories of psychosis and epilepsy can be difficult for numerous reasons. Many practitioners have to overcome disease specific problems, including not only chronology of psychosis presentation and seizure history, but also how a patient’s behavioral health can wax and wane in-between or during clusters of seizures, logistical challenges relating to differing supervising teams, and in our case, psycho-social and cultural issues. Our patient is 21-year-old male from Cameroon, who has lived in the US since 2008. The patient was diagnosed with focalized seizures at the age of 9, and the parents opted for medical management over lobectomy. During adolescence, the patient reportedly began suffering from MDD and was hospitalized at Cincinnati Children’s Hospital. The patient reported to AU Emergency Department in October of 2016 for witnessed, generalized seizures, reportedly for running out of medicine. On repeated visits, the patient’s father reported that the patient had not showered in months and had a flat, depressed affect. The patient admitted to depression with a prior suicide attempt and recent non-compliance; he was later discharged with outpatient follow-up. Ten months later, the patient was sent to an inpatient psychiatric hospital for psychotic behavior and was treated for hallucinations. He was readmitted a few days after discharge for poor sleep and staring off into space, notably displaying a high risk of aggression. He was readmitted a few days after his next discharge for persisting psychotic symptoms. The patient became non-compliant due to religious rituals and complained of seizures though his EEG was normal. Eventually, the patient was started on clozapine and improved. There exists a well-known association between epilepsy and psychosis, with temporal lobe epilepsy more closely associated with psychosis than other forms of epilepsy. In this case, there are additional risk factors including hippocampal sclerosis and early age at epilepsy onset. In this patient, there is substantial evidence to suggest interictal psychosis, given the delay in presentation between psychotic symptoms and onset of epilepsy. This is but one example that highlights the connection between seizures and psychosis not to mention the importance of an interdisciplinary course when managing such patients.
- Special Session
Sam Vaknin is Visiting Professor of Psychology, Southern Federal University, Rostov-on-Don, Russia and Professor of Finance and Psychology in CIAPS (Centre for International Advanced and Professional Studies). Sam Vaknin is the author of Malignant Self-love: Narcissism Revisited and other books about personality disorders.
We react to serious mishaps, life altering setbacks, disasters, abuse, and death by going through the phases of grieving. Traumas are the complex outcomes of psychodynamic and biochemical processes. But the particulars of traumas depend heavily on the interaction between the victim and his social milieu. It would seem that while the victim progresses from denial to helplessness, rage, depression and thence to acceptance of the traumatizing events - society demonstrates a diametrically opposed progression. This incompatibility, this mismatch of psychological phases is what leads to the formation and crystallization of trauma. Paper We react to serious mishaps, life altering setbacks, disasters, abuse, and death by going through the phases of grieving. Traumas are the complex outcomes of psychodynamic and biochemical processes. But the particulars of traumas depend heavily on the interaction between the victim and his social milieu. It would seem that while the victim progresses from denial to helplessness, rage, depression and thence to acceptance of the traumatizing events - society demonstrates a diametrically opposed progression. This incompatibility, this mismatch of psychological phases is what leads to the formation and crystallization of trauma.
PHASE I The mismatch between the victim's reactive patterns and emotional needs and society's matter-offact attitude hinders growth and healing. The victim requires society's help in avoiding a head-on confrontation with a reality he cannot digest. Instead, society serves as a constant and mentally destabilizing reminder of the root of the victim's unbearable agony (the Job syndrome).
PHASE II Thus, when the victim is most in need, terrified by his helplessness and adrift - society is immersed in depression and unable to provide a holding and supporting environment. Growth and healing is again retarded by social interaction. The victim's innate sense of annulment is enhanced by the self-addressed anger (=depression) of those around him.
PHASE III Both the victim and society react with RAGE to their predicaments. In an effort to narcissistically reassert himself, the victim develops a grandiose sense of anger directed at paranoidally selected, unreal, diffuse, and abstract targets (=frustration sources). By expressing aggression, the victim reacquires mastery of the world and of himself. Members of society use rage to re-direct the root cause of their depression (which is, as we said, self directed anger) and to channel it safely. To ensure that this expressed aggression alleviates their depression - real targets must are selected and real punishments meted out. In this respect, "social rage" differs from the victim's. The former is intended to sublimate aggression and channel it in a socially acceptable manner - the latter to reassert narcissistic self-love as an antidote to an alldevouring sense of helplessness. In other words, society, by itself being in a state of rage, positively enforces the narcissistic rage reactions of the grieving victim. This, in the long run, is counter-productive, inhibits personal growth, and prevents healing. It also erodes the reality test of the victim and encourages self-delusions, paranoidal ideation, and ideas of reference.
PHASE IV Again, the members of society are unable to help the victim to emerge from a self-destructive phase. His depression is enhanced by their apparent helplessness. Their introversion and inefficacy induce in the victim a feeling of nightmarish isolation and alienation. Healing and growth are once again retarded or even inhibited.
PHASE V This final mismatch between the victim's emotional needs and society's reactions is less damaging to the victim. He is now more resilient, stronger, more flexible, and more willing to forgive and forget. Society's denial is really a denial of the victim. But, having ridden himself of more primitive narcissistic defences - the victim can do without society's acceptance, approval, or look. Having endured the purgatory of grieving, he has now re-acquired his self, independent of society's acknowledgement. Sundry Observations on Trauma and Post-Traumatic Conditions Trauma imprints everything and everyone involved or present in the stressful event, however tangentially. Places, people, smells, sounds, circumstances, objects, dates, and categories of the above, all get "stamped" with the traumatic experience. Trauma imprinting is at the core of PTSD (Post-traumatic Stress Disorder), CPTSD (Complex PTSD), and triggering. Triggers are places, people, smells, sounds, circumstances, dates, or objects that are reminiscent of the same classes of stressors involved in the original trauma and evoke them. Many exposure and retraumatization therapies (including, most recently, the treatment modality that I developed, Cold Therapy) make use of trauma imprinting to generate new, less stressful and less panic- or anxiety-inducing associations between extant triggers and thus to induce integration of the haywire emotions involved in the primary situation. Major traumas can lead to either of two opposing outcomes: regression into infantile behaviors and defenses - or a spurt of personal growth and maturation. It all depends on how the trauma is processed. Faced with devastatingly hurtful, overwhelming, and dysregulated emotions, personalities with a low level of organization react to trauma with decompensation, reckless acting out, and even psychotic microepisodes. Major depression and suicidal ideation are common. In an attempt to restore a sense of safety, the individual regresses to an earlier - familiar and predictable - phase of life and evokes parental imagoes and introjects to protect, comfort, soothe, and take over responsibilities. In a way, the trauma victim parents herself by splitting her mind into a benevolent, forgiving, unconditionally loving inner object (mother or father) and a wayward, defiant, independent, and rebellious child or teen who is largely oblivious to the consequences of her actions. More balanced, emotionally regulated, and mature persons reframe the trauma by accommodating it in a rational, evidence-based (not fictitious or counterfactual) narrative. They modify their theories about the world and the way it operates. They set new boundaries and generate new values, beliefs, and rules of conduct (new schemas). They process their emotions fully and are thereby rendered more self-efficacious. In other words: they grow up, having leveraged their painful losses as an engine of positive development geared towards the attainment of favorable ling-term results. Abuse and attachment, trauma and bonding form parabolic relationships: up to the vertex (the low point of the parabola), one member of the pair (abuse, trauma) sustains and enhances the other (attachment, bonding). Beyond that point, the former weakens and undermines the latter. The exact location of the vertex depends on individual experience, personal history, personality, cultural and social mores, peer input, and expectations. To simplify: Up to a point, people - men and women - are attracted to abusers. When the maltreatment reaches the traumatic vertex, the emotional reaction flips and the hitherto victims are repelled by the gratuitous cruelty and are, therefore, ejected and catapulted out of the dyad, couple, or bond. This means that good guys and decent women don't stand a chance in the sexual and relationship marketplace. They always amount to distant and unattractive second or rebound choices. Nice guys and solid, stable gals are there to pick up the pieces, relegated to the unglamorous role of the sanitation workers of lopsided romance. They are rarely anything more than pedestrian providers and co-parents or, if they luck out, intimate companions in between their spouses's extramarital affairs with other, more abusive and, therefore, more thrilling and appealing others. Cold feet: the remorse that accompanies a - usually major - decision (like getting married or acquiring a home). It often leads to passive-aggressive, reckless, immoral, or destructive behaviors intended to undermine further action and reverse course. The recipient of such mistreatment is traumatized: he feels rejected or abandoned or betrayed or cruelly and unjustly abused or damaged. Trust is shattered. But cold feet have little to do with the target: the jilted fiancee or the dumped lover or the defaulted seller. Cold feet represent complex inner dynamics of avoidance, repetition compulsion, prior traumas, low self-esteem, a labile sense of self-worth and inadequacy, fear of the unknown, and emotional dysregulation (being overwhelmed). However, if you keep attracting into your life people who get cold feet, there could be a problem with your selection criteria - or with you. It behoves you to look into why you keep choosing the wrong folks - or what in you gives them cold feet. "Triggering cascade" is when a seemingly minor trigger results in vastly disproportional trauma. Painful memories, replete with the attendant negative emotions, are walled behind mental barriers: combinations of dams and firewalls. Sometimes even an innocuous mishap or a merely unpleasant event rupture these defenses and decades of hurt are released in an avalanche that, at times, can be life threatening. Narcissists and psychopaths are dreamwreckers: they are particularly adept at provoking triggering. cascades by aggressively and contemptuously frustrating both individual and social expectations, cherished and life-sustaining hopes, deeply held beliefs, and ingrained fantasies and values. Their lack of empathy, innate, goal focused cruelty and ruthlessness, absent impulse control, and mind boggling recklessness create a whiplash of shock and disorientation coupled with agony and a pervasive feeling of being existentially negated. Intolerable angst is the inevitable outcome.