Scientific Program

Conference Series Ltd invites all the participants across the globe to attend 22nd International Conference on Neurology & Neurophysiology Rome, Italy.

Day 1 :

Keynote Forum

Yingxu Wang

University of Calgary, Canada

Keynote: Latest advances on theory of spike frequency modulation in neuroinformatics

Time : 10:00-10:45

Conference Series Euro Neurology 2018 International Conference Keynote Speaker Yingxu Wang photo

Yingxu Wang is Professor of Cognitive Informatics, Brain Science and Denotational Mathematics. He is President of International Institute of Cognitive Informatics and Cognitive Computing (ICIC). He has held Visiting Professor positions at Oxford University, Stanford University, UC Berkeley, and MIT. He is the initiator of fields of cognitive informatics, denotational mathematics, abstract intelligence, neural circuit theory, formal brain models, cognitive robots and cognitive machine learning.


Neuroinformatics is a trans-disciplinary field that studies the neurological models and neural representations of internal information in the brain by neuro-computing methodologies and denotational mathematics. It investigates neural information transmission, processing, memorization, retrieval, fusion and their engineering applications in cognitive systems, brain-inspired systems, cognitive computing and computational intelligence. There were different perceptions on whether neural signals of human nerves systems are digital (discrete) or analogue (continuous). The latest neural signaling theory known as Spike Frequency Modulation (SFM) explains that the mathematical model of neural signal transformations is unified in the form of SFM as digital signals, which is supported by both experimental data and empirical observations in neurology, neurophysiology and brain science. The SFM theory provides a formal explanation of the time-divided signaling mechanism for internal information transformation and the space-divided signaling pathways for semantics representations in the central/peripheral neural systems. It reveals the neurological foundation of higher level cognitive processes of the brain such as those of sensing, perception, action, knowledge expression, thinking, learning, problem solving and decision making. It is recognized that although the external detections of neural signals in brain-machine interfaces are analogue, they are merely a demodulation (dSFM) of internal spike signals as an effect of the integration of the discrete time series or the sum of a set of Fourier components in the time domain.


Keynote Forum

Hans Von Holst

Karolinska Institute, Sweden

Keynote: Cytotoxic brain tissue edema after traumatic brain injury: a new hypothesis to its etiology

Time : 11:00-11:45

Conference Series Euro Neurology 2018 International Conference Keynote Speaker Hans Von Holst photo

Hans von Holst received his Medical Doctor´s degree in 1976 and specialist in Neurosurgery 1982 at Karolinska University Hospital.  In 1985 he earned his PhD and Associate Professorship in Neurosurgery, Clinical Neuroscience at Karolinska Institutet. During 1991-1996 he was appointed as Chairman of the Dept of Neurosurgery and Division Manager of the Neuroclinics at Karolinska University Hospital, respectively. He has been appointed as senior neurosurgeon from 1974 to 2015.  Between 1995-2015 he was appointed as Professor in Neuroengineering at the Royal Institute of Technology. He has published around 140 original papers in reputed journals, reviews and books and has been serving as an editorial board member in several journals


Cytotoxic brain tissue edema, which is found in both grey and white matter cells, is a complicated secondary consequence to ischemic injury following cerebral diseases such as traumatic brain injury (TBI) and stroke. To some extent the pathophysiological mechanisms are known, however far from complete. A new hypothesis regarding the etiology to cytotoxic brain edema is presented. The hypothesis is that external energy due to TBI and internal energy due to mechanical forces following stroke results in the disruption of non-covalent and covalent bonds in protein and nucleotide structures. The unfolded proteins attract water molecules while the disruption of nucleotides such as adenosine-tri-phosphates causes a dysfunction in ion hemostasis and which may tentatively explain the etiology to cytotoxic edema. Our studies using computer models show that the kinetic energy following an impact to the head has the potential to break the chemical bonds in the protein and nucleotide structures resulting in cytotoxic brain tissue edema. Since folding of mature proteins is very much dependent on normal energy supply, the protein synthesis cannot continue during the ischemic process. Under such conditions very little of the energy rich ATP can be produced and which may result in disturbance between extra- and intracellular ion metabolism. By using a folded protein in laboratory investigation, the present hypothesis has the potential to be confirmed and hence develop new drugs for therapeutic use. 


Conference Series Euro Neurology 2018 International Conference Keynote Speaker Ersida Buraniqi photo

Ersida Buraniqi has completed her MD from Istanbul Faculty of Medicine and Postdoctoral studies from Boston Children’s Hospital and Harvard Medical School. She is now a Child Neurology Resident at Mayo Clinic. She has presented her scientific work in more than 15 national and international conferences and meetings. She has published five papers in reputed journals and has been serving as an Editorial Board Member of repute


Aim: To describe our experience with the efficacy and safety of clobazam in refractory epilepsy in a large population of children less than two years of age.

Methods: We retrospectively reviewed all patients between 0 and 2 years of age at Boston Children’s Hospital from October 2011 to December 2016. We included patients who were treated with clobazam for refractory epilepsy, and who had a follow-up visit at least one month after starting clobazam. Response to clobazam was defined as >50% reduction in seizure frequency at the time of last follow-up visit as compared to baseline.

Results: 155 patients received clobazam, of which 116 [median age 12 months, IQR (p25-p75) 8-16 months] had full follow-up data ≥1 month after starting clobazam. Median follow-up age was 14 months [IQR (p25-p75) 9-18 months]. At the time of clobazam initiation, 31/116 (27%) patients were on one antiepileptic drug (AED), 52/116 (45%) patients were on two AEDs, and 26/116 (22%) patients were on three or more AEDs. 7/116 (6%) patients received clobazam monotherapy. Overall response rate was 33% (38/116) with a median seizure reduction of 75%. 18 (16%) patients had ≤50% reduction, 14 (12%) had no change and 16 (14%) had worsening of seizure frequency. 30 (26%) patients became seizure free. 8 (7%) patients discontinued clobazam.

Conclusions: Clobazam is both well tolerated and effective in reducing seizure frequency in pediatric patients less than two years of age with refractory epilepsy.


  • Neurology | Neuronal functions and disorders | Neurorehabilitation | Neuropharmacology
Location: Olimpica 2


Aurelian Anghelescu

Carol Davila University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Romania



Roberto Cartolari

Radiology Service S. Giovanni Hospital , Switzerland

Session Introduction

Jose Luis Carrillo Gamboa

Center for Medicine Regenerativa Queretaro, Mexico

Title: Cognitive impairment and its association to musculoskeletal chronic degenerative disorders

Time : 12:30-13:00


José Luis Carrillo Gamboa has completed his PhD from National Autonomous University of México in the School of Medicine. He is the Director and Founder of Mexico. He is an Academic Coordinator in Orthopedics at Hospital H+ Querétaro and; advisory member of University of Valley of México. He has published results in osteoarthritis with stem cells.



As people get older, the incidence of musculoskeletal pathologies such as osteoporosis and osteoarthritis increases dramatically, especially by the age of 65 and the association of these pathologies to cognitive decline difficult diagnosis results in poor prognosis. Aging is a physiological process and is related to cognitive decline and when accompanied by degenerative disorders, requires specialized medical attention and treatment costs rise significantly. Pathologies at an old age include musculoskeletal disorders, which cause pain, limit the patient’s mobility, ability to dress up, cause social isolation and also put the patient on risk of fractures. Therefore, it is very important to identify changes related to aging such as articular inflammation, metabolic diseases, hypertension, immune deficiency and bone demineralization. Para clinic and imaging tests would be required to evaluate articular tissue, cartilage, ligaments, tendons, subchondral bone, meniscus and muscle. In menopausal patients bone mineral density, body mass and muscle mass indexes would be very useful. Cognitive decline associated with musculoskeletal deterioration and aging should be better prevented in order to avoid ineffective approaches when all these clinical entities are associated when patient vulnerability is present. We show clinical evidence of the association of cognitive decline and musculoskeletal deterioration.


Min-Cheol Lee

Chonnam National University, South Korea

Title: Mapping somatotopic of motor fibers and modeling internal capsular stroke

Time : 13:00-13:30


Min-Cheol Lee has completed his MD and PhD from Chonnam National University Medical School (CNUMS), South Korea. He is the Professor in Department of Pathology/Neuropathology, CNUMS and Affiliated Professor at Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology. He has published more than 100 papers in reputed journals.



Recently, several capsular stroke models have been reported with different targets of destruction. This study was performed to establish an accurate internal capsule (IC) target for capsular stroke modeling in rats. We injected adeno-associated virus serotype 5 (AAV)-CaMKII-EYFP into forelimb motor cortex and AAV-CaMKII-mCherry into hindlimb motor cortex (n=9) to anterogradely trace the pyramidal fibers and map their somatotopic distribution in the IC. On the basis of the neural tracing results, we created photothrombotic infarct lesions in rat forelimb and hindlimb motor fiber (FMF and HMF) areas of the IC (n=29) and assessed motor behavior using a forelimb-use asymmetry test, a foot-fault test, and a single-pellet reaching test. We found that the FMFs and HMFs were primarily distributed in the inferior portion of the posterior limb of the IC, with the FMFs located largely ventral to the HMFs but with an area of partial overlap. Photothrombotic lesions in the FMF area resulted in persistent motor deficits. In contrast, lesions in the HMF area did not result in persistent motor deficits. These results indicate that identification of the somatotopic distribution of pyramidal fibers is critical for accurate targeting in animal capsular stroke models: only infarcts in the FMF area resulted in long-lasting motor deficits.



Guofeng Wu completed his PhD from Fudan University. He is the Director of Emergency Department, Affiliated Hospital of Guizhou Medical University. He is serving as an Associate Editor of Neuropsychiatry. He has published more than 100 papers relating to epilepsy and intra-cerebral hemorrhage. He has undertaken several projects regarding intractable epilepsy and minimally invasive surgery for intra-cerebral hemorrhage evacuation. He is now the Chairman of the Professional Committee of Neuro-emergency of Emergency Medicine Branch, Chinese Medical Doctor Association. He is also the Standing Committee Member of Emergency Medicine Branch, Chinese Stroke Society as well as the Chairman of the Professional Committee for Epilepsy of Guizhou Preventive Medicine Association. He won the Guizhou Provincial Science and Technology Progress Award in 2015, and the Science and Technology Progress Award of Chinese Ministry of Education in 2014.




Intracranial post-operative re-haemorrhage is an important complication in patients with hypertensive intra-cerebral haemorrhage (ICH). The purpose of the present study was to determine the value of the computed tomography (CT) blend sign in predicting post-operative re-haemorrhage in patients with ICH. In this study, a total of 126 patients with ICH were included in the present study. All the patients underwent standard stereotactic minimally invasive surgery (MIS) to remove the ICH within 24 hours following admission. There were 41 patients with a blend sign on initial CT and 85 patients without a blend sign on the initial CT. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed to assess the relationship between the presence of the blend sign on the non-enhanced admission CT scan and post-operative re-haemorrhage. Post-operative re-haemorrhage occurred in 24 of the 41 patients with the blend sign, and in 9 of the 85 patients without the blend sign. The incidence of re-haemorrhage was significantly different between the groups. The multivariate logistic regression analysis demonstrated that the initial Glasgow coma scale score (p=0.002) and blend sign (P<0.00) on the initial CT scan are independent predictors of post-operative re-haemorrhage. The sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of the blend sign for predicting post-operative re-haemorrhage were 72.7%, 81.7%, 58.5% and 89.4%, respectively. The presence of the blend sign on the initial CT scan is closely associated with post-operative re-haemorrhage in patients with ICH who undergo stereotactic MIS.



Ying Li has completed his MD from Beijing Medical University (1962–1968). He was a General Surgeon, and Oral-Maxillofacial Surgeon at Nanjing Medical School. He completed Post-doctoral fellowship in Department of Internal Medicine University of Michigan, where he was appointed as Research Scientist in 1997, and Research Professor in 2002.



Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) can enhance memory and cognitive functions in both rats and humans. Studies have shown that VNS influenced decision-making in epileptic patients. However, the sites of action involved in the cognitive-enhancement are poorly understood. By employing a conscious rat model equipped with vagus nerve cuff electrode, we assess the role of chronic VNS on decision-making in rat gambling task (RGT). Simultaneous multichannel-recordings offer an ideal setup to test the hypothesis that VNS may induce alterations of in both spike-field-coherence and synchronization of theta oscillations across brain areas in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and basolateral amygdala (BLA). Daily VNS, administered immediately following training sessions of RGT, caused an increase in ‘good decision-maker’ rats. Neural spikes in the ACC became synchronized with the ongoing theta oscillations of local field potential (LFP) in BLA following VNS. Moreover, cross-correlation analysis revealed synchronization between the ACC and BLA. Our results provide specific evidence that VNS facilitates decision-making and unveils several important roles for VNS in regulating LFP and spike phases, as well as enhancing spike-phase coherence between key brain areas involved in cognitive performance. These data may serve to provide fundamental notions regarding neurophysiological biomarkers for therapeutic VNS in cognitive impairment.


Muhammed Al-Jarrah is an Associate Professor of Clinical Physiotherapy graduated from The University of Kansas Medical Center, USA in 2006 with PhD in Rehabilitation Sciences. Currently, Dr. Al-Jarrah is the Dean of the School of Applied Medical Science at Jordan University of Science and Technology. He has published more than 40 papers in well recognized journals in the last 10 years. His research interests focus on Neurorehabilitation mainly for Parkinson’s disease, stroke and cerebral palsy.


Objectives: Parkinson’s disease (PD) is progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by loss of dopaminergic neurons in the basal ganglia. Although the mechanisms underlying the loss of dopaminergic neurons in PD remain unclear, oxidative damage is one of these proposed mechanisms. The main goal of this study was to evaluate the activity of antioxidant enzymes in the blood of PD patients before and after bilateral anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS).

Methodology: 20 PD patients participated in this study. Internal Board Review (IRB) was obtained to conduct this study. 10 sessions of tDCS were given for each patient in the rate of five sessions per week for two weeks. The current intensity was low intensity direct electrical current (1 mA per each electrode) for 20 minutes per session. Activity of antioxidant enzymes; catalase (CAT, glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) have been quantified in plasma as measures of antioxidant capabilities before and after stimulation.

Results: Our study showed that treatment with tDCS increased SOD, CAT and GSH-Px activities P<0.05.

Conclusion: Oxidative stress refers to the cytological consequences of imbalance between the production of free radicals and the ability of the body to clear them. Increased production of free radicals or decreased capacity to clear them could lead to neurodegeneration in the PD. tDCS might be well considered to manage PD.



B Barbini has completed her MD and Residency in Psychiatry from State University of Milan. She is medical official In-charge of the Psychiatric Department. She has published more than 25 papers in reputed journals.



Depression is associated with high morbidity and mortality. WHO has ranked depression as the leading cause of disability. Pharmacological treatment is the first choice. Despite appropriate treatment, 30-40% of patients with a depressive episode don’t achieve improvement. Of the patients that are resistant to conventional therapies, approximately 60% responded to ECT. In Italy, ECT is underused, with about 200-300 patients per year, treated for Treatment Resistant Depression (TRD) (Thase and Rush criteria). The American Psychiatric Association (APA) task force on severe affective illness considers ECT an effective treatment when pharmacological treatments failed. The close cooperation of the anesthesiologist and the psychiatrist is crucial to accomplish high quality and safe ECT. Indeed, the role of the anesthesiologist is not just to set the anesthesia plan but also to manage any clinical emergency. ECT requires general anesthesia with a combination of hypnotic and muscle relaxant drugs. Anesthesiological management of such patients is often complex because their comorbidities so the best anesthetic approach should be chosen to improve the outcome from treatment and to minimize associated adverse effects. The efficacy of ECT relies on duration and quality of seizure after shock. Given this requirements, we present data from a large sample of TRD inpatients of Mood Disorder Unit. We discuss about the procedure, the rate of response, and of side effects and outcome with follow-up data.



Mohamed A.Fahmy Zeid completed MBBCH very good with honors on Nov 1982 and completed Master of General Surgery in 1987.He did fellowship in the department of Neurosurgery in 1994.He did doctorate degree in Neurological surgery in 1994.and member congress of American Neurological Surgeons on 2000 He is the House officerin Ministry of Health Hospitals and Alexandria university Hospitals for one year from 1983 to 1984.He worked as physician in the Ministry of Health Hospitals from 1984 to 1987.He is Registrar of Neurosurgery in private hospital from 1987 to 1988.He is Assistant lecturer of Neurosurgical department of Alexandria University Hospitals from 1988 to 1994.He is chief consultant of Neurosurgery in Saqr Hospitals, UAE from 2000 to 2003.He visit to Neurological surgery department, Royal College of Medicine,London in 2001. He is working as Professor of Neurosurgery department at Alexandria University from 2010 to till date.




Surgical indication, More-over approaches and specific strategic planning to that pre-plexing anatomical as well as pathological origin of the sellar and jaxta-sellar lesions cause a changeable task for even an experienced neuro-surgeon. So our objective of this paper is to provide a better three dimensional approach/classification system.


We proposed a classification system which includes the pre-operative detailed Imaging "three dimensional studies by CT, MRI and dynamic contrast scanning”. The combination of tumor invasion (grading) with anatomical tumor extension "staging" that delineated precisely the anatomical spread and the possible pathological nature.


  • Eight different grades of spread in “height” of the lesion (cranio-caudal direction) could be delineated in the Sagittal  imaging studies.
  • The anterior to posterior extension of the same lesion and its angle at the “Tuberclem Sella” appearing also on the same Sagittal  neuro-imaging studies.
  • In Coronal neuro-imaging studies: A four different types of ( Midline ) lesions extension & expansion could be delineated.
  • The height of the level of suprasellar pituitary tumor extension according to the mid sagittal cut on the MRI and high resolution CT & MRI scan with contrast.
  • If the tumor is totally intra sellar with normal position and location of the diaphragma sella, A larger tumor elevating the diaphragma sella so (above the sella but infra-diaphragmatic).
  • More Larger, the tumor spread above the diaphragm sella but below the level of the optic chiasma. (supra sellar and supra diaphragmatic but infra chiasmatic) means “extra-Sellar”
  • The tumor spread above the chiasma but below the level of floor of the third ventricle, (super chiasmatic but infra ventricular) or in the level of optic chiasma cistern.
  • The tumor invading the floor of the third ventricle (the hypothalamic level).
  • The tumor extends to the cavity of the third ventricle (the tumor located intra ventricular).
  • The tumor expands up to the level of the roof of the third ventricle.
  • If the tumor reaching above the third ventricle up to “corpus callosm”.
  • The degree of expansion & extension of the pituitary tumor also on Sagittal cuts imaging “ in Anterior to Posterior” direction could be centered on (A Line Horizontally With Sella Floor) here the location could be localizing by the same numerical clockwise direction, if the anterior part would be located in the left side of the plate imaging, (9 clock on the left side, 3 clock on the right side etc.).
  • The degree of invasions of the pituitary tumor could be evaluated by coronal cuts of the “ MRI with contrast and multislice CT angiography “ α) if the pituitary tumor invading the sellar floor (reaching to the sphenoid air sinuses), β) if the pituitary tumor invading the full thickness of the lateral wall of the sella reaching to the cavernus sinuses cavity,  γ) if the pituitary tumor invading more to the lateral direction up to the lateral wall of the cavernus sinuses reaching to the medial aspect of the temporal fossa region, δ) If the pituitary tumor reaching to the floor sphenoid air sinus.
  • Coronal  T1W with contrast showing focal lesion at the right side of the pituitary representing  a micro-adenoma without extension into the cavernous sinus Coronal T1WI with contrast showing large macro adenoma with apoplexy (bright T1 areas).
  • Coronal FLAIR showing a mass Lesion with left para-sellar extension implicating the left cavernous sinus.


The use of bony anatomical landmarks of the skull base in addition to the anatomical location of the third ventricle with cavernous sinus shapes also, the sizes and morphology of the carotid arteries could help us for pre-operative planning. Also, comparative studies of the operative results between different approaches, techniques and tumors sizes with different neuro-surgical centers worldwide “having” various post-operative outcome including varieties of follow up duration in different protocols of management could be verified and compared.



  • Young Research Forum

Session Introduction

Prisca-Rolande Bassole

Cheikh Anta Diop University, Senegal

Title: Early epileptic encephalopathies with suppression burst

Time : 15:45-16:05


Prisca-Rolande Bassole is a Physician. She has completed her Doctorate from Faculty of Medicine of Ouagadougou University of Burkina Faso and Post-doctoral studies in Neurology and Epileptology from Cheikh Anta Diop University, Senegal. She is currently a trainee in a clinical neurophysiology laboratory of Fann Teaching Hospital of Dakar, Senegal.



Early epileptic encephalopathies (EE) with suppression burst (SB) are serious because of their drug resistance and the impact on psychomotor development of children involved. Our objective is to identify the determinants of this pathology in Dakar. This is a retrospective and prospective study from medical records from January 2013 to January 2015, performed on children who followed at Neurological Clinic of Fann Teaching Hospital of Dakar. Interested patients with early epilepsy, delayed psychomotor development and EEG pattern of SB. Anamnestic, clinical, electroencephalographic and progressive aspects with treatment were evaluated. We report four cases of children with two family epilepsy notion, undocumented, who presented early encephalopathy with polymorphic seizures dominated by tonic seizures which began the first day of life for two, 30 days of life and the beginning of the third month for the other two. The first sleep EEG performed showed a pattern of suppression burst. The electro-clinical evolution is good for three patients with the treatment, based mainly on sodium valproate at a dose of 20 mg/Kg/day in average. It is marked by the disappearance of seizures or decreased in frequency and by improving the sleep EEG monitoring with disappearance of SB. For the 4th patient, the change made to another type of EE which is the West syndrome. Psychomotor retardation remained evident for all patients. The early EE with SB represent a vast and serious disease. The ictal expression, mixing myoclonus and tonic seizures underlie the same pathophysiology. Even in the absence of crisis, the interictal activity seems worsen treatment response with bad psychomotor prognosis. The precise description of these syndromes remains useful for achieving optimal diagnosis and treatment of these EE age-dependent. The results of this work open up the prospect for further studies including longitudinal that would better individualize these serious early diseases especially because there are treatable causes and identify a better prognosis factors.



Mostafa Azimi has completed his MD from Tehran University of Medical Sciences and studying Sports Medicine as 3rd year Clinical Resident. He is the Scientific Director of website in Farsi. He is affiliated with Sports Medicine Research Center, Neuroscience Institute in Spine Group.



Background & Aim: Muscle weakness, fatigue and balance disturbances contribute to the reduction of daily activity in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. Therapeutic strategies to promote improvements in muscle strength, functional capacity and balance are limited in individuals with MS. Yoga training (YT) is a most popular mind-body interventions and has been known to positively affect physical, mental and other symptoms of multiple sclerosis patients with moderate disability and other cases.

Materials & Method: This study was designed to determine effect of 8-week home-based yoga (YT) and resistance training (RT) on muscle strength, functional capacity and balance in 26 patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) with mild to moderate disability. 26 male and female patients (Age:31.3±9.0749) with mild to moderate disability, were recruited and randomized into three groups randomly: Yoga training (n=9) with three-times weekly home based Hatha Yoga training for eight weeks, resistance training (n=9) with three-times weekly home based resistance training program for eight weeks and control groups (n=8).

Results: The data analyzed using one way ANOVA showed; however, that Yoga Training (YT) had no significant effect on leg muscle strength, but home resistance training (RT) increased it. Also, functional capacity was not affected by any YT and RT, but the balance changed.

Conclusion: It seems that prescribing regular training programs with controlled intensity and time, particularly resistance training (RT) and yoga training (YT) can have a positive impact on the performance and improvement of MS patients’ quality of life.



Oritoke Aluko is a Doctoral student in Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, University of Ibadan, Nigeria. Her research is basically in the area of Behavioural Neuroscience and Psychopharmacology, which has brought her in contact with International Brain Research Organization (IBRO). She is an Assistant Lecturer in Department of Physiological Sciences, School of Health and Health Technology, Federal University of Technology, Akure, Nigeria. She is involved in teaching some topics in Physiology and Pharmacology to undergraduate students. She has some publications in reputable journals with large proportions of them in behavioral neuroscience.



Methyl jasmonate is a naturally-occurring anti-stress plant hormone and has been shown to ameliorate the effects of acute and chronic stress in mice. The present study aimed to study the behavioral and biochemical mechanisms underlying the adaptogenic-like properties of methyl jasmonate. Male Wistar albino rats were subjected to stressors of the unpredictable chronic mild stress (UCMS) paradigm for 28 days and treated with methyl jasmonate at 10, 25 and 50 mg/kg. Body and organ weights, behavioral and hematological parameters, as well as levels of biomarkers of oxidative stress were determined. UCMS resulted in a progressive weight loss, hypertrophy of liver and adrenal gland, and atrophy of spleen and testes. An aberrant behavioral pattern as evident by swim endurance and post summing motor function tests was also observed in UCMS-subjected rats. Likewise, UCMS induced a deviant in hematological parameters. UCMS also significantly increased the levels of serum glucose, corticosterone, monoamine oxidase, lactate dehydrogenase, cholesterol, triglyceride, creatine kinase and blood urea nitrogen. There was also an alteration of oxidative stress markers viz malondialdehyde, superoxide dismutase, catalase, reduced glutathione, and nitric oxide arginase, ATPase, adenosine deaminase induced by UCMS. Methyl jasmonate (10, 25 and 50 mg/kg) significantly ameliorated the UCMS-induced alterations in the body and organ weights. There was a significant amelioration of the UCMS-induced behavioral alterations by methyl jasmonate. Methyl jasmonate reversed the UCMS-induced suppression of erythrocytes, leukocytes, and hemoglobin content, packed cell volume and lymphocyte count. Methyl jasmonate significantly reversed the alteration of oxidative stress markers induced by UCMS. Also, pretreatment with methyl jasmonate significantly attenuated UCMS-associated biochemical alterations, pathological outcomes and oxidative stress. The present findings showed the adaptogenic potential of methyl jasmonate in relation to the antioxidant systems implicating their therapeutic importance in stress-related disorders. Further investigations on the neurochemical and morphological mechanisms are being studied.



Mr. Xue Deng is a Hong Kong and U.S-registered Occupational Therapist. He has completed his Master of Occupational Therapy from Tufts University and bachelor’s degree in Occupational Therapy from the Hong Kong Polytechinic University. He is now a PhD Candidate in the department of Orthopaedics & Traumatology from the University of Hong Kong. He has published several papers relevant to Occupational Therapy and has been serving as a reviwer for American Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation.


Nerve conduction studies (NCS) is clinically used to confirm the diagnosis and grade the severity of carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS), a median nerve entrapment due to chronic compression at wrist. However, the NCS cannot differentiate the CTS with demyelination alone from the disease with secondary axonal degeneration. As a cross-validated and sensitive diagnostic tool with NCS, it is unknown if ultrasound (US) can compensate the deficit. This study aimed at exploring US to differentiate demyelinated CTS from that in association with axonal degeneration. We studied 75 demyelinated CTS hands and 93 demyelinated CTS hands with axonal degeneration by comparing cross-sectional area (CSA-W) and perimeter (P-W) of median nerve at wrist, ratio of CSA and P of wrist over mid-forearm (R-CSA, R-P) measured by US. Results revealed significant differences in CSA-W (p<.0001), P-W (p<.0001), R-CSA (p=.007, p<.05) and R-P (p<.0001). ROC curves indicated poor-to-fair accuracy of CSA-W (Area=.626, p<.0001); P-W (Area=.695, p<0.0001), RCSA (Area=.601, p=.025, p<.05) and R-P (Area=.662, p<.0001). Our findings were consistent with previous relevant studies. We conclude that US may be potentially used to differentiate demyelinated CTS from that with axonal degeneration in clinical practice.